Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) is a common yet often overlooked condition affecting millions worldwide. It involves the narrowing or blockage of the arteries outside of the heart and brain, most commonly in the legs. This blog aims to provide an in-depth understanding of PAD, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and prevention strategies.


What is Peripheral Artery Disease?

PAD is a circulatory problem where narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs. It’s a type of peripheral vascular disease (PVD), which refers to disorders of blood vessels outside the heart and brain. The reduced blood flow can cause pain, especially in the legs, and increase the risk of heart attack and stroke.



Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). Best Cardiologist in Kolkata. Best Diagnostic Centre in Kolkata.

Causes and Risk Factors:

The primary cause of PAD is atherosclerosis, where fatty deposits (plaques) build up on the artery walls. This can reduce or block blood flow to various parts of the body. Other contributing factors include:

  • Smoking: The most significant risk factor, as it damages the blood vessels.
  • Diabetes: Increases the risk of PAD and worsens the condition.
  • High Blood Pressure: Puts extra strain on the arteries.
  • High Cholesterol: Contributes to plaque formation.
  • Age: Risk increases with age, particularly after 50.
  • Family History: A family history of cardiovascular disease can increase your risk.
  • Obesity: Excess weight can contribute to other risk factors like diabetes and hypertension.

Many people with PAD are asymptomatic. When symptoms do occur, they can include:

  • Claudication: Painful cramping in the hip, thigh, or calf muscles after activity, such as walking or climbing stairs.
  • Leg Numbness or Weakness.
  • Coldness in the lower leg or foot, especially when compared with the other leg.
  • Sores on your toes, feet, or legs that won’t heal.
  • A change in the color of your legs.
  • Hair loss or slower hair growth on your feet and legs.
  • Slower growth of your toenails.
  • Shiny skin on your legs.
  • No pulse or a weak pulse in your legs or feet.

Diagnosing PAD typically involves a combination of the following:

  • Physical Exam: Checking for weak pulses in the legs.
  • Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI): Comparing the blood pressure in your ankle with the blood pressure in your arm.
  • Ultrasound: To view blood flow in your arteries.
  • Angiography: Using imaging techniques to see the flow through your arteries.
  • Blood Tests: To check for conditions related to PAD, like high cholesterol and diabetes.
Treatment Options:

Treating PAD involves lifestyle changes, medications, and potentially surgery:

  1. Lifestyle Changes:
    • Quit Smoking: The most critical step to prevent PAD progression.
    • Exercise: Regular physical activity can improve symptoms.
    • Healthy Diet: Eating a balanced diet to manage weight, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels.
  2. Medications:
    • Cholesterol-lowering drugs: Statins to reduce plaque buildup.
    • Blood Pressure Medications: To manage hypertension.
    • Blood Thinners: To prevent blood clots.
    • Medications to control blood sugar: Especially important for diabetic patients.
  3. Surgery:
    • Angioplasty and Stenting: To open blocked arteries.
    • Bypass Surgery: Creating a new path around blocked arteries.
    • Atherectomy: Removing plaque from arteries.

Preventing PAD primarily involves addressing risk factors:

  • Stop Smoking.
  • Exercise Regularly.
  • Maintain a Healthy Diet.
  • Monitor and Manage Blood Pressure.
  • Control Diabetes.
  • Maintain Healthy Cholesterol Levels.

Peripheral Artery Disease is a serious condition that can lead to significant health issues if not addressed. Early detection and treatment are crucial in managing the disease and improving quality of life. By understanding the risk factors, recognizing symptoms, and adopting preventive measures, individuals can significantly reduce their risk of developing PAD. If you suspect you have PAD or are at risk, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.


To consult a Doctor at Sparsh Diagnostic Centre, call our helpline number 9830117733.





No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.


2 Replies to “Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)”

  1. […] Health Conditions: Conditions like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and peripheral artery disease can impair blood circulation, increasing the […]

  2. […] Peripheral Artery Disease: Reduced blood flow to the limbs, which can cause pain and other complications. […]

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